This is very similar in concept to phishing, but instead of email being used to deliver malicious code or links to malicious website, SMS text messages are used. The messages often look as though they’ve come from someone you know and / or trust, but they have typically been spoofed to make you think they are legitimate.
As with phishing, if you are in any doubt at all that the message has come from the person you think it has, contact them by another means eg phone them, access their website etc.
This is a broad term, but generally speaking it is the art of persuading someone to provide you with information, or access to something, which they shouldn’t really. It takes many forms, and just as with hacking there are people who do social engineering for good (eg red team members) and those who do it for nefarious purposes (eg con men).
Again in general terms, the good guys will only use techniques that only leave you feeling good about the experience, will not try to manipulate or coerce you into doing somehting you don’t want to. The bad guys will have no qualms about trying everything to bend you to their will.
This is the catch-all phrase used for unwanted email, much of which may contain viruses or malicious links. In many ways its the electronic version of junk mail (aka direct marketing) which most of us experience. Over 45% of all email sent globally currently is spam, though in 2014 that figure was over 70%.
When you consider there are over 235 billion emails sent every day, it is clear this is a huge volume of spam, and it is therefore unsurprising that some of it makes it into your mailbox, irrespective of what anti-spam tools you are using.
Spear phishing is a form of phishing (and whaling), and is different because the emails are directed at specific targets. Information about the target is normally found through Open Source Intelligence gathering, and an email is then crafted to take advantage of that information.
For example, if someone did some research on me and found that I was a fan of London Irish rugby and the band Coldplay, they could create an email designed specifically for me which could perhaps give me the opportunity to get 50% discount on tickets to see Coldplay or 75% off a hospitality package at the rugby. If I was a genuine fan of either I might be tempted by those offers, and might click on any link in the message or open an attachment.
There are software packages available which allow a person to mimic another person’s phone number, and there are also techniques which allow them to send email which looks as though it has come from someone else. This practice is called spoofing.
Imagine you have been receiving text messages from your bank, and one day you get another message (in the same message stream) which asks you to click on a link to update your details. This could be a spoofing attack. One way to check is to contact your bank by phone, in person or on their website.
Next, imagine you get an email from your boss, and it looks genuine. It may be formatted the same as your company email address, and may follow the same naming convention eg email@example.com, but the mail has come from outside your organisation and again it has malicious links or attachments in it. Many organisations protect against this by adding some text to the subject line of an email eg the phrase [EXT] or [external] if it has come from outside the organisation. This is a simple and obvious visual clue.
Stuxnet was shrouded in secrecy but is now very well known. It was a sophisticated piece of code which targeted a specific make of industrial control system, and was used in an effort to cripple the Iranian nuclear programme. It featured a number of zero day exploits which targeted vulnerabilities in the centrifuges used in a specific power plant, causing them to spin out of control while in the control room everything looked normal. The intent was to prevent the Iranians from developing a nuclear weapons capability.
It is an infamous and ingenious piece of code. For more information, you may want to see the documentary made about it, called Zero Days.
This is a network device which helps segment a local area network into separate networks. It differs from a router in that it only knows one path from one network to another, whereas a router can search among multiple possible routes and determine the best path for network traffic to take.